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Issue:ISSN 1000-7083
          CN 51-1193/Q
Director:Sichuan Association for Science and Technology
Sponsored by:Sichuan Society of Zoologists; Chengdu Giant Panda Breeding Research Foundation; Sichuan Association of Wildlife Conservation; Sichuan University
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Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Development of Immature Stages of the Common Tiger Butterfly, Danaus genutia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Author of the article:
Author's Workplace:1. College of Resource and Environment, Yuxi Normal Universtiy; 2. Research Institute of Resource Insects, Chinese Academy of Forestry
Key Words:Danaus genutia; developmental duration; effective accumulated temperatures; developmental threshold temperatures; artificial breeding; conservation
Abstract:To investigate the effects of temperatures and photoperiods on the growth and development of nepionic immature stages of the common tiger butterfly, Danaus genutia (Cramer), collected from Yuanjiang county, Yunnan province. To do so, life-cycle stages and developmental durations of each stage were observed by rearing eggs, larvae and pupae individually under different temperatures and photoperiods in climatic chambers. Developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures of eggs, larvae and pupae were measured. In long-daylength (LD15:9) and at different temperatures (17.5 ℃, 20 ℃, 22.5 ℃, 25 ℃, 27.5 ℃, 30 ℃), the durations of egg stage were 9.29, 4.90, 4.91, 3.97, 3.54, 3.20 days respectively, the durations of larva stage were 38.04, 17.89, 17.13, 10.82, 9.92, 10.2 days respectively, and the durations of pupa stage were 22.71, 13.72, 12.00, 7.73, 7.46, 6.80 days respectively. In short-daylength (LD9:15) and at different temperatures (17.5 ℃, 20 ℃, 25 ℃, 30℃), the durations of egg stage were 9.04, 8.20, 4.11, 3.04 days respectively, the durations of larva stage were 30.08, 18.54, 13.29, 9.54 days respectively, and the durations of pupa stage were 21.19, 13.4, 9.64, 6.38 days respectively. The results showed that in terms of T=C+KV, the developmental threshold temperatures (C) and the effective accumulated temperatures (K) of eggs, larvae and pupae were determined as follows: Tegg=11.10+55.15V, Tlarva=14.06+131.62V, Tpupa=13.46+98.95V. Temperatures have more significant influence on the growth and development of nepionic of D. genutia compared with photoperiods. These results show that temperature is a key factor in determining the developmental velocity of immature stages of D. genutia, in contrast, there were no significant differences in the developmental duration of immature stages of the butterfly between the long-daylength (LD15:9) and the short-daylength (LD9:15). We suggested that the appropriate rearing temperatures of immature stages of D. genutia were controlled in the range of 20 ~ 27.5 ℃. Furthermore, natural light can satisfy the needs of the development of immature stages of the butterfly.
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