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圈养大熊猫初生幼仔声音通讯行为研究
Study on the Vocal Communication Behavior of Infant Giant Panda
刘璇1,2, 薛飞2, 郭俊良2,3, 吴蔚2, 侯蓉2, 周江1*, 齐敦武2*, 张志和2
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180386
作者单位:1. 贵州师范大学生命科学学院, 贵阳 550001;
2. 成都大熊猫繁育研究基地, 四川省濒危野生动物保护生物学省部共建实验室, 成都 610081;
3. 西华师范大学生命科学学院, 珍稀动植物研究所, 四川南充 637002
中文关键字:大熊猫;母兽;幼仔;育幼期;声音通讯
英文关键字:Ailuropoda melanoleuca; mother; infant; nursing period; acoustic communication
中文摘要:对很多动物来说,特别是刚出生的、视觉、身体运动能力等发育不健全的幼体,声音信号的识别与传递是其种群长期续存的重要保障。由于大熊猫Ailuropoda melanoleuca新生幼仔不具备自主移动能力且双眼紧闭,主要依靠声音与母体进行交流,因此,利用Shure VP89M指向性麦克风和Tascam DR-100MKII录音设备对0~45 d大熊猫幼仔的声音进行采集,在Adobe audition 3.0内对采集的信息进行分析,同时,利用焦点动物取样法对哺乳期雌性大熊猫的行为进行详细记录。研究结果发现,1)大熊猫幼仔的声音主要为Squawk、Squall和Croak。Squall基频值(1 160.96 Hz±224.99 Hz)和主频值(2 239.94 Hz±742.73 Hz)最高,Squawk的基频值(820.53 Hz±160.45 Hz)和主频值(931.98 Hz±435.12 Hz)次之,而Croak的基频值(728.74 Hz±120.34 Hz)和主频值(735.92 Hz±138.48 Hz)最低;2)幼仔发出叫声后,母兽的回应率和行为类型均随叫声类型不同而不同:母兽对幼仔叫声的回应率为62%,其中Squall的回应率最高(67.4%),回应的行为以舔仔为主;其次是Croak(59.0%),以舔仔为主;而Squawk最低(57.8%),以叼仔为主。大熊猫幼仔初期仅仅依赖声音与母体交流,在充分了解其声音特征的基础上,掌握幼仔与母兽间的互动行为,有助于更深入了解圈养大熊猫的育幼行为,为育幼过程中的人工干预提供科学依据。
英文摘要:The recognition and transmission of vocal signals are important for the long-term survival of many animals, especially the infant with immature visual and physical abilities. The eyes of infant giant pandas are normally closed, and they do not have the ability to move independently but mainly communicate with their mother through voice. The aim is exploring infant giant pandas' (45 days old) basic characteristics of the vocal signal and the interactions of infant giant pandas with their mothers. The voice of infant giant pandas were collected by Shure VP89M directional microphone and Tascam DR-100MKII recorder, and then the data was analyzed by Adobe audition 3.0. Additionally, focal animal sampling method was used to monitor the lactating behavior of mothers. The results showed that:1) infant giant panda vocals could be divided into 3 distinct call types:squawk, squall, and croak. The vocal with the highest fundamental frequency (1 160.96 Hz±224.99 Hz) and dominant frequency (2 239.94 Hz±742.73 Hz) was "squall", followed by "squawk" (820.53 Hz±160.45 Hz and 931.98 Hz±435.12 Hz) and "croak" (728.74 Hz±120.34 Hz and 735.92 Hz±138.48 Hz). 2) The mothers' response rate and behavior types differed according to the different calls of infants. The mother giant pandas responded to the infants' vocal with a rate of 62%. The responding rate of mother giant pandas to the squall of infants was the highest (67.4%) followed by croak (59.0%), and licking was the reaction. The responding rate to squawk was the lowest (57.8%), with the reaction of nibbling cub. This study can help to understand the actions between mother giant pandas and cubs, and may provide scientific information for the artificial breeding of giant pandas.
2019,38(6): 601-606 收稿日期:2018-12-03
分类号:Q95-3;Q959.8
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(31772484);四川省科学技术厅项目(2017JQ0026);成都大熊猫繁育研究基金会项目(CPF2015-19,CPF2014-11,CPF2017-20)
作者简介:刘璇(1993-),硕士研究生,主要从事动物行为学方面的研究,E-mail:18380357768m0@sina.cn
*通信作者:周江,E-mail:zhoujiang@ioz.ac.cn;齐敦武,E-mail:qidunwu@163.com
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