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四川美姑大风顶国家级自然保护区鸟类物种及垂直多样性研究
Composition and Vertical Distribution Pattern of Birds Species in the Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve, Sichuan
陈雪1, 张塔星1, 罗概1, 吴永杰1, 冉江洪1*, 陈明华2, 李良2, 龚亿华2
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20190024
作者单位:1. 四川大学生命科学学院, 生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065;
2. 四川美姑大风顶国家级自然保护区管理局, 四川美姑 616450
中文关键字:美姑大风顶国家级自然保护区;凉山山系;生物多样性;垂直分布
英文关键字:Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve; Liangshan Mountains; biodiversity; vertical distribution
中文摘要:2016年12月—2018年6月采用样带法和样点法对四川美姑大风顶国家级自然保护区的鸟类资源进行了调查,根据调查并结合相关文献记录,统计出保护区分布有鸟类268种,隶属17目56科。其中,留鸟146种(54.5%)、夏候鸟91种(34.0%)、冬候鸟18种(6.7%)、旅鸟13种(4.9%),以繁殖鸟为主。繁殖鸟类中,以东洋界物种为主(67.5%)。保护区的珍稀濒危鸟类物种数量较多,有国家Ⅰ级重点保护野生鸟类2种、国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生鸟类16种;列入濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约附录Ⅰ1种、附录Ⅱ12种;列入世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录濒危(EN)1种、易危(VU)3种、近危(NT)2种;中国特有种14种。各生境类型中的鸟类丰富度为针叶林 > 阔叶林 > 针阔混交林 > 灌丛及灌草丛 > 高山灌丛草甸 > 水域;针叶林、阔叶林、针阔混交林之间的鸟类群落结构相似性最高,水域与其他生境的最低。保护区鸟类物种丰富度在2 600~3 000 m的中海拔地区最高,在高海拔和低海拔较低,物种垂直分布呈中峰模式。本研究丰富了保护区和凉山山系的鸟类资料,为鸟类垂直多样性研究提供了重要案例。
英文摘要:From December 2016 to June 2018, bird resources of the Sichuan Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve were investigated by point counts and line-transect methods. A total of 268 bird species belonging to 56 families and 17 orders were recorded in the reserve according to the field survey and related literature records. Among the bird species recorded in the reserve, 146 were residents (54.5%), 91 were summer visitors (34.0%), 18 were winter visitors (6.7%) and 13 were passage migrants (4.9%), and the most common of which were breeding birds including 67.5% of Oriental origin species. Additionally, there were 2 class Ⅰ and 16 class Ⅱ nationally key protected birds. One species was listed on CITES Appendix Ⅰ and 12 species were listed on CITES Appendix Ⅱ. One species was classified in the IUCN category EN, 3 VU and 2 NT. Moreover, 14 species were found to be endemic to China. The richness of birds in each habitat type were coniferous forest > broadleaved forest > mixed broadleaf-conifer forest > shrub & shrub grass > alpine meadow > wetlands. The highest similarity of bird communities was between the three forest habitats, while wetlands showed the lowest bird distribution similarity with other habitats. Species richness of birds peaked between 2 600-3 000 m elevations and decreased at lower and higher elevations, showing a mid-elevational peak pattern. This study provides further basic data of birds in the reserve of Liangshan Mountains and is an important case for the study of bird vertical diversity.
2019,38(4): 445-451 收稿日期:2019-01-08
分类号:Q959.7
作者简介:陈雪(1991-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事鸟类生态学研究,E-mail:chenxue560@126.com
*通信作者:冉江洪,E-mail:rjhong-01@163.com
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