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小黄黝鱼繁殖期与非繁殖期的两性异形
Sex Dimorphism of Micropercops swinhonis During Reproduction and Non-Reproduction Period
金锦锦1,2, 张方方1,2, 仇玉萍1,2, 陈国柱1,2*
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作者单位:1. 西南林业大学, 云南省滇池湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 昆明 650224;
2. 西南林业大学, 湿地学院/国家高原湿地研究中心, 昆明 650224
中文关键字:生物入侵;小黄黝鱼;两性异形;繁殖期
英文关键字:biological invasions; Micropercops swinhonis; sex dimorphism; reproduction period
中文摘要:两性异形可能在促进入侵种成功入侵过程中扮演重要角色而促使研究者进行广泛的探讨。本文利用传统形态性状测量及框架性状分析方法定量研究了滇池流域典型入侵鱼类小黄黝鱼Micropercops swinhonis繁殖期与非繁殖期的两性异形特征,为系统研究小黄黝鱼的繁殖生态与入侵机制的关系奠定基础。研究结果显示,小黄黝鱼种群在5-6月出现世代交替,可以划分出5月前的世代Ⅰ和6月后新成熟的世代Ⅱ2个繁殖群体。这2个繁殖群体繁殖期雄鱼体长均显著大于雌鱼,提示小黄黝鱼是偏向于大个体雄性的两性异形物种。非繁殖期,小黄黝鱼雌雄体长差异无统计学意义。单因素方差分析显示,小黄黝鱼雌雄个体无论繁殖期还是非繁殖期均在多个测量参数中呈现显著差异。主成分分析显示,世代Ⅰ繁殖群体繁殖期雌雄鱼在第二主成分PC2轴上显著分离,尾柄高/体高、腹鳍起点-臀鳍起点/体长等是导致两性形态差异的主要指标,提示雄鱼尾柄增大及雌鱼腹腔增大以提高两性的繁殖成功率等策略是促使两性异形的重要因素;世代Ⅱ繁殖群体在第一主成分PC1轴上显著分离,全长、体长、尾柄长/头长、尾柄高/体长、头宽/体长、胸鳍起点-臀鳍起点/体长等与生长及腹腔增大有关的指标是导致两者形态差异的主要因素;非繁殖期雌雄鱼形态性状差异不明显。判别分析结果则进一步支持了雌雄鱼形态性状差异繁殖期明显、非繁殖期不明显的结论。小黄黝鱼两性异形与提高其繁殖输出及后代早期存活率密切相关,对其入侵与种群扩张有积极意义。
英文摘要:Currently, researchers are interested in the sex dimorphism of alien species as it might play a significant role during the process of alien species invasion. A freshwater goby, Micropercops swinhonis, which is the typical invasive fish in Dianchi Lake, Kunming, China, has been reported to have sex dimorphism; however, there is no definite quantitative data to support this opinion. In order to determine whether the sex dimorphism in M. swinhonis is real and to make a preliminary comprehension on the relationship between the fish invasive ability and sex dimorphism, a morphological analysis of male and female M. swinhonis was conducted in this study. Fish was collected from a basin named Huahongyuan, Kunming, China, which is around the Dianchi Lake watershed. The results showed that a generation replacement occurred between May and June 2017, thus 2 reproduction groups of M. swinhonis were detected, generation Ⅰ and generation Ⅱ. Generation Ⅰ was collected from Spetember 2016 to May 2017. Generation Ⅱ occurred at the late of March 2017 should be the offsprings of generation Ⅰ and was collected from June to July 2017. Additionally, significant differences were observed in many measurements between the male and female M. swinhonis both in the reproduction and non-reproduction period samples. The male M. swinhonis were much larger than the females in the reproduction period; however, there was no significant difference in the non-reproduction period. By using One-Way ANOVA, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, the sex dimorphism of M. swinhonis was revealed. Principal component analysis showed that the morphologies of male and female M. swinhonis in generation Ⅰ were separated along with the axis of the second principal component (PC2), and the ratio of the depth of caudal peduncle vs. body depth, the length from the starting point of the peritoneal fin to the start point of the anal fin vs. standard body length suggested to be the principal measurements which had a major contribution to the morphological difference between males and females. However, in generation Ⅱ, the male and female fish morphologies were diverged in the axis of the first principal component (PC1), and the total length, standard length, etc. were the principal measurements which had a major contribution to the morphological difference between males and females. Reproductive selection pressure and reproductive strategy adaptation are suggested to be the driving force for the M. swinhonis to form the sex dimorphism in which the males are much larger than the females might benefit to the early survival rate of the offsprings. As a result, sex dimorphism in M. swinhonis has a considerable meaning to their population expansion during their invasion process.
2018,37(5): 507-518 收稿日期:2017-11-07
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170348
分类号:Q959.4;Q174
基金项目:国家自然科学青年基金项目(31400477);西南林业大学高原湿地科学云南省创新团队项目(2012HC007);云南省滇池湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站项目(2017-LYPT-DW-157)
作者简介:金锦锦(1992-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事鱼类入侵生态学研究,E-mail:jin013022@163.com
*通讯作者:陈国柱,E-mail:chenguozhu79@163.com
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