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温度和光周期对虎斑蝶幼期生长发育的影响
Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Development of Immature Stages of Danaus genutia
陈祯1, 周成理2*, 陈晓鸣2, 石雷2
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DOI:
作者单位:1. 玉溪师范学院化学生物与环境学院, 云南玉溪 653100;
2. 中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所, 昆明 650224
中文关键字:虎斑蝶;发育历期;发育起点温度;有效积温;人工繁育
英文关键字:Danaus genutia; developmental duration; developmental threshold temperatures; effective accumulated temperatures; artificial breeding
中文摘要:通过在人工气候箱内设定温度和光周期梯度单虫饲养观察个体发育史,研究了温度和光周期对虎斑蝶Danaus genutia幼期生长发育的影响,研究结果可为该高观赏价值蝶种的规模化养殖提供依据。结果显示:在长光照(LD=15∶9)条件下,温度17.5℃、20.0℃、22.5℃、25.0℃、27.5℃、30.0℃时虎斑蝶卵的平均发育历期分别为9.29 d、4.90 d、4.91 d、3.97 d、3.54 d、3.20 d,幼虫的分别为38.04 d、17.89 d、17.13 d、10.82 d、9.92 d、10.20 d,蛹的分别为22.71 d、13.72 d、12.00 d、7.73 d、7.46 d、6.80 d;在短光照(LD=9∶15)条件下,温度17.5℃、20.0℃、25.0℃、30.0℃时虎斑蝶卵的平均发育历期分别为9.04 d、8.20 d、4.11 d、3.04 d,幼虫的分别为30.08 d、18.54 d、13.29 d、9.54 d,蛹的分别为21.19 d、13.40 d、9.64 d、6.38 d。虎斑蝶卵的发育起点温度和有效积温最小,分别为11.10℃和55.15 d·℃;其次是蛹,分别为13.46℃和98.95 d·℃;幼虫最大,分别为14.06℃和131.62 d·℃。结果表明:温度是影响虎斑蝶幼期发育速率的主导因素,光照与幼期各虫态的发育历期相关性均不显著。在养殖生产上,建议将幼期养殖温度控制在20.0~27.5℃,光照并非养殖生产中需要重点管理的条件,采用自然光照即可。
英文摘要:To investigate the effects of temperature and photoperiod on the development of immature stages of the common tiger butterfly (Danaus genutia), which was collected from Yuanjiang county, Yunnan province. The life-cycle stages and developmental durations of each stage of D.genutia were observed by individually rearing eggs, larvae and pupae under different temperatures and photoperiods in climatic chambers. Developmental threshold temperatures (C) and effective accumulated temperatures (K) of eggs, larvae and pupae were measured. In long-day treatment (LD=15:9) and at different temperatures (17.5℃, 20.0℃, 22.5℃, 25.0℃, 27.5℃, 30.0℃), the durations of egg stage were 9.29 days, 4.90 days, 4.91 days, 3.97 days, 3.54 days, and 3.20 days, respectively; The durations of larva stage were 38.04 days, 17.89 days, 17.13 days, 10.82 days, 9.92 days, and 10.20 days, respectively; The durations of pupa stage were 22.71 days, 13.72 days, 12.00 days, 7.73 days, 7.46 days, and 6.80 days, respectively. In short-day treatment (LD=9:15) and at different temperatures (17.5℃, 20.0℃, 25.0℃, 30.0℃), the durations of egg stage were 9.04 days, 8.20 days, 4.11 days, and 3.04 days, respectively; The durations of larva stage were 30.08 days, 18.54 days, 13.29 days, and 9.54 days, respectively; The durations of pupa stage were 21.19 days, 13.40 days, 9.64 days, and 6.38 days, respectively. The results showed that in terms of T=C+KV, C and K of eggs, larvae and pupae were determined as follows:Tegg=11.10+55.15V, Tlarva=14.06+131.62V, and Tpupa=13.46+98.95V. These results suggested that temperature has more significant influence on the growth and development of immature stages of D. genutia compared with photoperiods, and thus temperature is a key factor in determining the developmental velocity of immature stages of D. genutia. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the developmental duration of immature stages of the butterfly between the long-day treatment (LD=15:9) and the short-day treatment (LD=9:15). We suggest that the appropriate rearing temperatures of immature stages of D. genutia should be controlled in the range of 20.0-27.5℃. Furthermore, natural light can satisfy the needs of the development of immature stages of the butterfly.
2018,37(4): 420-425 收稿日期:2017-11-28
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170379
分类号:Q969
基金项目:中国林业科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(CAFYBB2017MB215)
作者简介:陈祯(1983-),男,博士,主要从事昆虫生态学、资源昆虫以及害虫综合治理研究,E-mail:cz@yxnu.net
*通讯作者:石雷,E-mail:buttzhou@163.com
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