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新疆博乐和伊犁河谷敏麻蜥的种下分类地位探讨
Taxonomical Status of Eremias arguta from Bole City and Ili River Valley, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China
龚雄1,2, 刘金龙1,2, 周天和1,2, 宋琪1,2, 郭宪光1*
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作者单位:1. 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041;
2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
中文关键字:敏麻蜥;伊犁河谷;种下分类;形态学;细胞色素b基因;分子系统发育
英文关键字:Eremias arguta; Ili River Valley; intraspecies systematics; morphology; cytochrome b gene; molecular phylogeny
中文摘要:敏麻蜥Eremias arguta是麻蜥属Eremias在欧亚大陆分布最广的物种之一,主要栖息在欧洲东部和亚洲中部,从罗马尼亚到蒙古国和中国西部的干旱草原和半荒漠中。先前认为敏麻蜥有6个亚种,我国分布有2个亚种,由于种群间形态变异较大,一些亚种的分类地位尚有争议。本研究采用形态比较和基于线粒体细胞色素b基因序列的分子系统发育分析,对新疆博乐和伊犁河谷的敏麻蜥4个种群28号样本进行种下分类地位探讨。联合GenBank中的敏麻蜥细胞色素b基因序列,采用最大简约法、最大似然法和贝叶斯推断法构建系统发育树进行亚种界定。采用贝叶斯因子,通过比较限制性和非限制性贝叶斯树的拓扑结构检验有关敏麻蜥亚种分类的几种相互竞争的假设。结果表明,博乐种群的形态特征与伊犁河谷支系一致,雄性的背侧在繁殖季节有醒目的蓝色或绿色眼点。系统进化树也表明,来自博乐的单倍型属于伊犁河谷支系,为一个尚未描述的分类群Eremias arguta ssp.。以往有关伊犁河谷种群属于指名亚种E. a. arguta或东方亚种E. a. potanini或乌兹别克斯坦亚种E. a. uzbekistanica的观点均被显著拒绝。伊犁河谷支系最有可能与乌兹别克斯坦亚种和伊塞克湖亚种E. a. darevskii二者构成的支系形成姐妹群,但并没有强的证据拒绝备择假说,即伊犁河谷支系位于树的基础位置,与其余支系形成姐妹群。此外,重建的系统发育树中指名亚种与东方亚种形成了交互单系,尽管自展支持率很低且后验概率不高;其备择假设,即东方亚种嵌在指名亚种支系中,也没有很强的证据拒绝。总之,博乐种群不属于东方亚种,而属于一个单独的伊犁河谷支系,同时,这也是伊犁河谷支系在准噶尔盆地有分布的新纪录;伊犁河谷支系不应该被划分为指名亚种、东方亚种或乌兹别克斯坦亚种,而是属于尚未描述的新亚种;伊犁河谷支系的系统发育位置还不明确,需要采用整合分类学的方法澄清。此外,结合形态变异,本研究还讨论了东方亚种的有效性。
英文摘要:The steppe racerunner (Eremias arguta) is one of the most widespread species of the Eurasian racerunners (genus Eremias), inhabiting steppes and semi-deserts of eastern Europe and central Asia from Romania to Mongolia and western China. Historically, 6 subspecies are recognized, and with 2 subspecies occurring in China; however, the taxonomical status of some subspecies is still controversial due in part to their high morphological variability. The present study deals with the intraspecies systematics of 28 samples representing 4 populations in Bole city and Ili River Valley, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, through morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. Cyt b gene sequences of E. arguta available in the GenBank were compiled for comparison with the obtained haplotypes. Tree-based subspecies delimitation was achieved by using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Bayes factors (BF) were used to test the competing hypotheses for E. arguta by comparing the unconstrained Bayesian tree topology to Bayesian trees with ‘hard’ constraints. The morphological features of steppe racerunner population in Bole city matched the description of those from the Ili River Valley, with specific dorsal pattern characterized by the presence of bright blue or green ocelli in breeding males. Phylogenetic trees congruently indicated that the haplotypes from Bole city belong to the Ili River Valley clade, which represents a separate lineage with undescribed subspecies (E. arguta ssp.). The 3 hypotheses that populations from the Ili River Valley belong to the subspecies E. a. arguta, or E. a. potanini, or E. a. uzbekistanica were rejected with very strong evidence (2lnBF>10), respectively. The Ili River Valley clade is most likely the sister taxon to E. a. uzbekistanica and E. a. darevskii; meanwhile, there is no reliable evidence to reject the alternative hypothesis that E. arguta ssp.is sister to the remaining lineages of E. a. arguta (2 < 2lnBF < 6). In addition, the reciprocal monophyly of E. a. potanini and E. a. arguta was recovered albeit with low bootstrap values and moderate Bayesian posterior probabilities. An alternative topology with samples of E. a. potanini nested within the E. a. arguta clade was not rejected with very strong evidence (6 < 2lnBF < 10). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that:(i) the steppe racerunner in Bole city is not E. a. potanini, but belongs to the Ili River Valley clade and thus represents a new record of E. arguta ssp. in Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China; (ii) the populations from the Ili River Valley should not be classified as E. a. arguta or E. a. potanini or E. a. uzbekistanica, but belong to a cryptic clade (an undescribed subspecies); (iii) the phylogenetic placement of the novel clade (subspecies) is unclear and needing further clarification with integrative taxonomic approach. Finally, in combination with morphological variability, the validity of the E. a. potanini subspecies was discussed.
2018,37(4): 387-399 收稿日期:2018-01-07
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20180009
分类号:Q959.6
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31672270,31272281,306700062);科技部国家国际科技合作专项(2015DFR30790);中国科学院与俄乌白等国科技合作专项
作者简介:龚雄(1991-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:分子进化与系统发育,E-mail:gongxiong@cib.ac.cn
*通讯作者:郭宪光,E-mail:guoxg@cib.ac.cn
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