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河南新乡黄河湿地鸟类国家级自然保护区苍鹭巢特征与巢址选择
Nests Characteristics and Nest-site Selection of Ardea cinerea in Xinxiang Yellow River Wetland Birds National Nature Reserve, Henan
赵闪闪, 褚一凡, 姜小玉, 于飞, 靳同霞, 马剑敏*
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作者单位:河南师范大学生命科学学院, 河南新乡 453007
中文关键字:苍鹭;巢特征;巢址选择;河南新乡黄河湿地鸟类国家级自然保护区
英文关键字:Ardea cinerea; nest characteristics; nest-site selection; Xinxiang Yellow River Wetland Birds National Nature Reserve, Henan
中文摘要:河南新乡黄河湿地鸟类国家级自然保护区是我国候鸟迁徙中线的必经之路,鸟类物种丰富。目前,该湿地的人为干扰现象日益突出,对鸟类栖息和繁殖造成了影响。苍鹭Ardea cinerea是该湿地鸟类的重要代表,其繁殖活动与栖息环境密切相关。为了解干扰鸟类繁殖的主要因素、有效管理保护区、维持湿地的鸟类多样性,于2017年5—8月,采用GPS定位、样方调查等方法对保护区陈桥东湖苍鹭繁殖地内的巢特征、巢址区和对照区生态因子进行了调查。研究结果表明:苍鹭筑巢位置对芦苇phragmites australis丛有极高的偏爱;巢材主要是芦苇;巢口向上呈浅盘状,巢内径、巢外径、巢高、巢深分别为(39.00±3.28) cm、(79.10±15.39) cm、(31.00±19.80) cm和(5.00±1.43) cm。对比苍鹭巢址区与对照区生态因子发现,巢址区植被密度、植被高度和植被盖度显著低于对照区(P<0.05);水深、巢距人为活动不频繁地距离和巢距人为活动频繁地距离显著高于对照区(P<0.05)。采用AIC信息准则法对可能影响苍鹭巢址选择的生态因子进行Logistic回归分析,结果发现,植被状态和干扰因子是制约苍鹭巢址选择的关键因素。建议通过采取适当扩大水域面积及水生植物面积、封锁湿地中的道路、定期蓄水、处理好湿地保护与旅游开发之间的关系等措施来改善苍鹭等鸟类的栖息环境,保护保护区鸟类多样性。
英文摘要:Xinxiang Yellow River Wetland Birds National Nature Reserve is the only route of the midline for the migratory birds in China, and there are many kinds of birds in the wetland. At present, the interference/disturbing of human being in this wetland are becoming much more serious, and the habitat and reproduction of birds have been affected. Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a crucial representative wader in Xinxiang Yellow River Wetland, and its breeding activity is closely related to the surrounding environment of its habitat. During May to August in 2017, to get the main factors that interfere with the breeding of birds, and to effectively manage the nature reserve and maintain the diversity of birds, the nest characteristics and ecological factors of nest site area and control area of A. cinerea breeding area of Chenqiao East Lake in the reserve were investigated by GPS positioning and quadrat survey. The results showed that A. cinerea especially prefered to nest in Phragmites australis. The nest type was ground-nest. The main material for nesting was reed. The nest was shallow dish-shaped and face upward. The inner diameter, outer diameter, height, and depth of the nest were (39.00±3.28) cm, (79.10±15.39) cm, (31.00±19.80) cm, and (5.00±1.43) cm, respectively. Comparison of ecological factors between the nest site area and control area showed that the density, coverage, height of vegetation in the nest site area were significantly lower than that of control area (P<0.05). Additionally, water depth and the distance from human infrequent and frequent activity were significantly higher than those in control (P<0.05). The factors limiting the nest-site selection of A. cinerea were investigated using binomial logistic regression based on Akaike's Information Criterion. The results showed that vegetative state and interference factor were the key factors restricting the heron nest-site selection. It was concluded that expanding the area of aquatic vegetation and water, blocking the roads through the wetland, and injecting water regularly are necessary to improve the A. cinerea habitat protect the bird diversity, and deal with the relationship between wetland protection and tourism development.
2018,37(3): 317-323 收稿日期:2017-10-20
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170323
分类号:Q958.1;Q16
基金项目:新乡黄河湿地鸟类饵料调查项目(新乡黄河湿地鸟类国家级自然保护区管理处)
作者简介:赵闪闪(1992-),男,硕士研究生,污染与修复生态方向,E-mail:772714436@qq.com
*通讯作者:马剑敏,E-mail:mjm6495@sina.com
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