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贡嘎山东坡的鸟类多样性和区系
Avifauna of the Eastern Slope of Mount Gongga
吴永杰1,2*, 何兴成1, Shane G. DuBay3,4, Andrew Hart Reeve5, Per Alström6,7, 周华明8, 和梅香1, 雍凡9, 张文文9, 雷富民7, 冉江洪1*
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作者单位:1. 四川大学生命科学学院, 生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065;
2. Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago 60637, USA;
3. Committee on Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago 60637, USA;
4. Life Sciences Section, Integrative Research Center, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 60605, USA;
5. Biosystematics Section at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark;
6. Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden;
7. 中国科学院动物研究所, 动物进化与系统学院重点实验室, 北京 100101;
8. 甘孜藏族自治州林业科学研究所, 四川康定 626001;
9. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京 210042
中文关键字:鸟类;区系;生物多样性;横断山;海螺沟;海拔;调查
英文关键字:birds; fauna; biodiversity; Hengduan Mountain; Hailuogou; elevation; field survey
中文摘要:经过7年5次野外系统调查并综合有关文献,贡嘎山东坡分布有鸟类336种,其中,留鸟204种(60.7%),夏候鸟89种(26.5%),冬候鸟18种(5.4%),旅鸟25种(7.4%);东洋界物种205种(61.0%),古北界物种105种(31.3%),广布种26种(7.7%);雀形目Passeriformes鸟类245种(72.9%);繁殖鸟类293种(87.2%)。本地区有国家Ⅰ级重点保护鸟类3种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护鸟类29种;横断山-喜马拉雅地区特有鸟类53种;CITES附录Ⅰ鸟类3种,附录Ⅱ鸟类25种;世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录濒危鸟类1种,易危鸟类2种。研究发现,东洋界物种的海拔分布下限平均、上限平均、中点平均和海拔跨度平均都低于古北界物种,但仅海拔分布中点平均和上限平均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),体现了东洋界和古北界物种对高海拔环境适应能力的不同可能与其不同的生物地理演化历史有关;东洋界占优势的特有种(51/53)海拔分布下限平均、中点平均和上限平均显著高于非特有物种,体现出东洋界特有种对高山环境的适应也许与其特有化过程有关。贡嘎山东坡鸟类丰富度在中海拔1 800~2 800 m的落叶阔叶混交林和针阔叶混交林中最高,在高海拔和低海拔物种丰富度较低,物种丰富度呈中峰模式,鸟类生态群落随植物群落结构变化而呈现一定的垂直生态替代规律。
英文摘要:Based on 5 field surveys from 2010-2017, and review of previous studies, we summarize the occurrence of 336 bird species on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, including 204 residents (60.7%), 89 summer visitors (26.5%), 18 winter visitors (5.4%), and 25 passage migrants (7.5%). There are 205 species (61.0%) of Oriental origin, and 105 species (31.3%) of Palearctic origin; 26 species (7.7%) are widespread. Two hundred and forty-five species (72.9%) belong to the order Passeriformes, and 293 species (87.2%) breed on Mt. Gongga. There are 3 Class-1 and 29 Class-2 nationally protected birds, and 53 birds from eastern Mt. Gongga are endemic to Hengduan-Himalaya region. Three species are listed on CITES Appendix Ⅰ and 25 species are listed on CITES Appendix Ⅱ. One species is classified under the IUCN category EN and 2 species under category VU. Our study shows that species from the Oriental origin on average have a lower elevational distribution than Palearctic origin species, indicating that differential adaptation to high elevational environments between Oriental and Palearctic species may be due to different biogeographical histories. Of the 53 endemic species, 51 are of Oriental origin have higher elevational lower limits, midpoints and upper limits than non-endemic species, suggesting that endemics are better adapted to highland environments, which may be associated with their endemism. Species richness of birds peaks between 1 800-2 800 m elevation in mixed coniferous and deciduous broadleaf forest as well as in mixed coniferous broad leaved forests. Species richness decreases at lower and higher elevations, showing an overall hump-shaped richness pattern. Bird communities and vegetation structure change markedly across the elevational gradient of Mt. Gongga.
2017,36(6): 601-615 收稿日期:2017-09-15
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170287
分类号:Q959.7
基金项目:国家自然科学青年基金项目(31501851);四川大学优秀青年教师名师名校访学项目;环保部生物多样性示范监测项目;生物安全监测系统应用模拟与示范推广项目(2016YFC12000705);中国科学院国际高级访问学者项目(2011T2S04);National Geographic Society/Waitt Fund; Funds from the American Philosophical Society, the American Museum of Natural History, the American Ornithologists' Union, the Society for the Study of Evolution, the Paulson Institute, the Animal Behavior Society等项目
作者简介:吴永杰,副教授,研究方向:动物生态、保护与进化
*通讯作者:吴永杰,E-mail:wuyongjie@scu.edu.cn;冉江洪,E-mail:rjhong-01@163.com
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