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捕食风险对红瘰疣螈幼体生长发育的影响
Effects of Predation Risks on Growth and Development of Tylototriton shanjing Larvae
王本君, 刘娜, 何一帆, 敬凯*
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作者单位:云南师范大学生命科学学院, 生物能源持续开发利用教育部工程研究中心, 昆明 650500
中文关键字:红瘰疣螈;捕食风险;幼体;变态
英文关键字:Tylototriton shanjing; predation risk; larvae; metamorphosis
中文摘要:捕食风险是两栖动物幼体表型和生活史进化重要的选择压力之一。红瘰疣螈Tylototriton shanjing为云南山地环境中典型的有尾两栖类,山地环境水体水量的迅速减少常导致红瘰疣螈在幼体发育阶段捕食风险增加。本研究通过实验,观察红瘰疣螈幼体的体长和体质量在不同捕食风险环境中的变化、变态时体型以及完成变态发育的时间差异,探讨捕食风险对红瘰疣螈幼体个体早期发育的影响。实验设计4个不同的捕食风险处理:无任何捕食者的无捕食组、有同种个体化学信号的同种异体组、有同种尾受伤个体化学信号的断尾组、有入侵物种——克氏原螯虾Procambarus clarkii信息的外来物种组。结果显示,红瘰疣螈幼体在不同捕食风险环境中的生长发育过程不同。在生长发育前期,所有处理组的幼体生长均相似,而在中后期,有捕食风险存在的3个处理组生长发育显著加快,最终变态时的体长和体质量要比无捕食风险组更长和更重,体型更大。幼体在有捕食风险存在的处理组完成变态的时间要比无捕食风险组显著更短。这表明,红瘰疣螈幼体在面对捕食风险增加时,通过在胚后发育后期加快生长和缩短发育时间,尽快完成变态,离开幼体发育水体来适应高捕食风险的水环境。
英文摘要:Predation risk is one of the most important selective forces for the phenotype and life history of amphibian larvae during evolution. Water level fluctuation often increased the predation risks on the larvae of Tylototriton shanjing, which is a typical caudate amphibian species in montane environment of Yunnan province, China. In this study, effects of predation risks on early ontogeny of T. shanjing had been explored by observing the variations of body length and body mass, as well as the differences of time at metamorphosis under different predation risk situations. Four treatments were designed to investigate the predation risk of T. shanjing:no predation treatment, conspecific individuals' treatment, injured individuals treatment, and invasion predators treatment. Finally, we observed that newt larvae showed different growth and development under different predation risk conditions. In the early stage of the development, the growth rates of the newt larvae in the four treatments were identical. However, significantly increased growth rate of newt larvae was observed at the middle and late stages in the predation risk treatment group. Body length and body mass of the newt larvae at metamorphosis stage after the predation risk treatment was much longer and heavier than those of the no predators treatment. Moreover, the time duration of metamorphosis stage of predation risk treated newt larvae were shorter than those of the no predation risk treatment. These results suggested that newt larvae adapt to high predation risk environment by speeding up the growth rate at late stage of embryonic development and shortening the time duration of metamorphosis.
2017,36(5): 513-518 收稿日期:2017-04-13
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170121
分类号:Q959.5
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31160427)
作者简介:王本君,女,硕士研究生,研究方向:动物生态学,E-mail:924534640@qq.com
*通讯作者:敬凯,E-mail:dunlin@sina.com
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