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我国越冬白头鹤觅食行为和食物资源研究
Foraging Behavior and Food Resources of Wintering Grus monacha in China
焦盛武1,2, 蒋科毅1, 左奥杰2, 吴明1, 雷光春2*, 周延3
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作者单位:1. 中国林业科学研究院亚热带林业研究所, 国家林业局杭州湾湿地生态系统定位研究站, 杭州 311400;
2. 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083;
3. 南京林业大学生物与环境学院, 南京 210037
中文关键字:白头鹤;越冬;觅食行为;食物资源;人为干扰
英文关键字:Grus monacha; wintering; foraging behavior; food resource; human disturbance
中文摘要:食物资源和人为干扰影响越冬候鸟的觅食行为。本研究通过对白头鹤Grus monacha觅食行为和食物资源的研究和分析,探讨其在我国越冬期的觅食生境利用方式。结果显示,白头鹤优先选择在人工生境取食稻谷和蚕豆;同时也会取食自然生境中下江委陵菜Potentilla limprichtii和蓼子草Polygonum criopolitanum的根。白头鹤在人工生境的行为主要为觅食,其行为时间比例极显著高于自然生境(P<0.01);在自然生境中警戒行为的时间比例显著高于人工生境中(P<0.05);但在人工生境中警戒频次显著高于自然生境(Z=-4.772,P<0.01),因更易受到干扰。相对于自然生境的食物,稻谷和蚕豆能提供更高的能量,且容易获取。人为干扰限制了白头鹤最优觅食理论的验证。
英文摘要:Food resources and human disturbance influence the foraging behavior of the wintering migrants. The foraging behavior and food resources of Grus monacha were investigated at Shengjin Lake, Poyang Lake and Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve during November 2013 to March 2014. The foraging time budget and vigilance frequency were obtained by objective sampling method, the biomass of food was obtained by random sampling method, and the food nutrition composition was tested. The results showed that G. monacha was mainly fed on Oryza sativa and Vicia faba at artificial habitats, while fed on the roots of Potentilla limprichtii and Polygonum criopolitanum at natural habitats. The main behavior of G. monacha was foraging at artificial habitats, and the proportion of foraging time was significantly higher than that at natural habitats(P<0.01). The proportion of vigilance time at natural habitats was significantly higher than that at artificial habitats(P<0.05); moreover, the vigilance frequency at artificial habitats was significantly higher than that at natural habitats(P<0.01). Compared with the food of natural habitats, rice and beans could provide higher energy and were easy to obtain. The optimal foraging theory was restricted by human disturbance for G. monacha.
2017,36(4): 392-397 收稿日期:2016-10-28
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160296
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.1
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划"973"项目(2012CB417005):江湖关系改变对珍稀候鸟栖息地生境的影响;浙江省省院合作林业科技项目(2013SY01):鸻鹬类对高潮停歇地的选择机制及其保护对策
作者简介:焦盛武(1984-),男,博士,助理研究员,主要从事鸟类生态学研究,E-mail:qustjsw@163.com
*通讯作者:雷光春,教授,E-mail:guangchun8099@gmail.com
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