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三种同域高山鸡形目鸟类的生境选择
Habitat Selection by Three Sympatric High-mountain Galliformes
徐雨1,2*, 王彬3, 窦亮3, 冉江洪3, 刘世荣4*, 岳汉秋5, 杨柳5, 宗建伟1, 李彦娇1, 李八斤6
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170001
作者单位:1. 平顶山学院化学与环境工程学院, 河南平顶山 467000;
2. 贵州师范大学生命科学学院, 贵阳 550025;
3. 四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064;
4. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091;
5. 平顶山学院旅游与规划学院, 河南平顶山 467000;
6. 格西沟国家级自然保护区, 四川雅江 627450
中文关键字:鸡形目;生境选择;季节;保护;同域
英文关键字:Galliformes; habitat selection; season; conservation; sympatric
中文摘要:研究同域物种的生境选择对认识物种共存、竞争及生态位分化具有重要理论意义,对物种的区域整合保护与管理也有重要实践价值。本文对川西高原3种典型同域分布的珍稀濒危鸡形目Galliformes鸟类,即四川雉鹑Tetraophasis szechenyii、白马鸡Crossoptilon crossoptilon和血雉Ithaginis cruentus的生境选择进行了研究。研究于2014年4月-2015年1月在四川省雅江县格西沟国家级自然保护区进行,共布设17条调查样带,在春、秋、冬季分别发现了3个物种65、61、66处生境使用点。通过Jacobs指数法和Bonferroni修正检验对物种生境选择进行分析,结果表明:(1)春季,四川雉鹑显著喜好冷杉-红杉林,拒绝高山栎丛;白马鸡显著拒绝杜鹃或杂灌草丛;而血雉对各生境的喜好或拒绝并不显著。(2)秋季,血雉显著拒绝杜鹃或杂灌草丛,四川雉鹑和白马鸡对各生境的喜好或拒绝均不显著。(3)冬季,所有物种均显著拒绝杜鹃或杂灌草丛;此外,白马鸡还显著偏好高山栎丛。研究表明,同域鸡形目物种的生境选择具有差异,而同一物种的生境选择模式在不同季节也存在一定差异。建议在保护管理中维持多样式、镶嵌式的植被群落,以保护川西高原鸡形目物种种群。
英文摘要:Understanding the habitat selection by sympatric species can provide insights into species coexistence, competition and niche partitioning, and also has important practical value for developing well-integrated species conservation policies. We studied habitat selection by three sympatric rare high-mountain Galliformes, buff-throated partridges (Tetraophasis szechenyii), white eared-pheasants (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), and blood pheasants (Ithaginis cruentus) in Gexigou National Nature Reserve, Yajiang county, western China from April 2014 to January 2015. Along 17 established line-transects, we detected 65, 61 and 66 species occurrence evidences in spring, autumn and winter, respectively. Jacobs's index analysis with the Bonferroni simultaneous-confidence-interval approach revealed that:(1) in spring, buff-throated partridges preferred fir-larch forests with an obvious avoidance of oak thickets, while white eared-pheasants avoided rhododendron or other miscellaneous shrubs and grasslands. Blood pheasants used all 5 habitat types in proportion to availability; (2) in autumn, blood pheasants avoided rhododendron or other miscellaneous shrubs and grasslands, while buff-throated partridges and white eared-pheasants did not show positive selection or obvious avoidance for any habitat types; (3) in winter, all the three species showed an active avoidance of rhododendron or other miscellaneous shrubs and grasslands. Additionally, white eared-pheasants showed a preference for oak thickets. The results indicate interspecific and seasonal differences in habitat selection by the three species. For conservation management of the three species and potentially high-mountain Galliformes throughout western China, we suggest managers to maintain a mosaic of habitats.
2017,36(3): 258-265 收稿日期:2017-01-02
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170001
分类号:Q958.1;Q959.7
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31301896);中国博士后科学基金项目(2014M550885)
作者简介:徐雨(1981-),男,副教授,主要从事鸟类生态与行为研究
*通讯作者:徐雨,E-mail:xuyu608@163.com;刘世荣,E-mail:liusr@caf.ac.cn
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