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若尔盖湿地骨顶鸡的繁殖生态及适应性探讨
Reproduction Ecological Traits and Adaptation of Fulica atra in Zoige Plateau Wetland
肖玥, 赵晨皓, 刘伟, 吴永杰, 冉江洪*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160248
作者单位:四川大学生命科学学院, 生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
中文关键字:骨顶鸡;若尔盖;高寒湿地;繁殖;湿地鸟类;巢址选择
英文关键字:Fulica atra; Zoige; alpine wetland; reproduction; wetland birds; nest-site selection
中文摘要:本文研究了四川省若尔盖湿地骨顶鸡Fulica atra的繁殖生态,讨论了骨顶鸡繁殖特征对高原的适应性。结果表明:若尔盖骨顶鸡平均筑巢期为6.73 d±0.36 d,平均巢底距水面距离平均为7.83 cm±0.64 cm,未发现对旧巢重复利用的现象;平均窝卵数5.83枚±2.15枚,平均卵质量31.90 g±0.37 g,平均孵卵时间26.64 d±2.83 d。与低海拔平原湿地相比,高寒湿地繁殖的骨顶鸡窝卵数更少、孵化期更长,并偏好在植被盖度适中、紧邻植被且草高较高的生境中营巢。主成分分析结果显示,影响研究区域骨顶鸡巢址选择的主要因子是安全因子,其次是交通因子与种内竞争因子。与平原地区繁殖的骨顶鸡相比,若尔盖地区骨顶鸡在繁殖生态特征上呈现出对安全因子高度偏好的特点,可能是其对高原多变气候环境和较高捕食压力的一种适应和选择策略。
英文摘要:The reproductive ecology and the adaptation to highland habitats of the common coot (Fulica atra) were studied in Zoige Plateau Wetland. The results showed that the average nesting period of coots in Zoige was 6.73 d±0.36 d, the average height of the nests above water was 7.83 cm±0.64 cm, the average clutch size was 5.83 eggs±2.15 eggs, the average mass of egg was 31.90 g±0.37 g, the average incubation time was 26.64 d±2.83 d, and no old nests were reutilized. Compared with the coots breeding in low plain wetland, the coots living in high and cold Zoige Plateau Wetland had smaller clutch size, longer hatching period, and preferred to nest in the habitat close to aquatic vegetation with moderate coverage and high height of water plants. The results of principal component analysis indicated that there were 3 principal components affecting the nest-site selection of the coots in Zoige Plateau Wetland:safety factor, traffic factor and intraspecific competition factor. When compared with the coots living in low plain wetland, coots in Zoige Plateau Wetland would choose the nest sites with better shelter and safety, and this might be an adaptation strategy under the variable climate of plateau and high predation pressure.
2017,36(2): 217-222 收稿日期:2016-09-14
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160248
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.1
作者简介:肖玥(1991-),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:保护生物学,E-mail:xiaoJFL234@163.com
*通讯作者:冉江洪,E-mail:rjhong-01@163.com
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