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扎龙国家级自然保护区冬季笼养丹顶鹤与白枕鹤种间适合度的比较
Comparison of Fitness between Captive Grus japonensis and Grus vipio in Winter in Zhalong National Nature Reserve
杨志宏1*, 邹红菲2, 邵淑丽1, 郭立业3, 林春山3, 张显光3
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160271
作者单位:1. 齐齐哈尔大学生命科学与农林学院, 黑龙江齐齐哈尔 161006;
2. 东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040;
3. 黑龙江扎龙国家级自然保护区, 黑龙江齐齐哈尔 161003
中文关键字:丹顶鹤;白枕鹤;适合度;扎龙国家级自然保护区
英文关键字:Grus japonensis; Grus vipio; fitness; Zhalong National Nature Reserve
中文摘要:通过比较黑龙江扎龙国家级自然保护区冬季笼养丹顶鹤Grus japonensis与白枕鹤Grus vipio的适合度,以期为拟定不同的保护对策提供参考。本文以保护区冬季1月(4周)单笼饲养的丹顶鹤(5♀、7)和白枕鹤(3♀、5)为研究对象,对其体质量变化、摄食量和摄食比例、摄入能量需求及能量收支进行种间比较。结果发现,丹顶鹤的体质量下降(9.35%)显著而白枕鹤体质量下降(3.02%)不显著。丹顶鹤和白枕鹤的摄食比例(鲫鱼/玉米)分别为12.70/1和0.93/1。丹顶鹤摄入能量和排出水热能散失实测值均极显著高于白枕鹤(P<0.001)。丹顶鹤与白枕鹤单位体质量(/kg)能量收支比较,摄入能量种间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而丹顶鹤的排出水热能散失极显著高于白枕鹤(P<0.01)。另外,低温和短光照的胁迫使可摄食鲫鱼和玉米的时间分别在5.5 h和9.5 h以内。结果表明,冬季相同生境中丹顶鹤和白枕鹤的摄入能量需求水平相同,但其能量收支因摄食偏好而出现显著变化。总之,从食性偏好、食物可获得性和能量收支来看,保护区冬季笼养白枕鹤的适合度应该高于丹顶鹤。
英文摘要:The present study was designed to compare the winter fitness of red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and white-naped crane (G. vipio) winter inhabitation in Qiqihar, Heilongjiang province, China, and to provide more reference on situ conservation. G. japonensis (5♀, 7) and G. vipio (3♀, 5) were housed individually in cages (6 m×4 m×4 m) in their natural habitat in Zhalong National Nature Reserve (123°51'-124°37'E, 46°48'-47°32'N). Twenty adults were fed with the same diets and feeding method. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and corn were supplied regularly. During the process, G. japonensis and G. vipio were maintained in natural conditions with a short photoperiod of9.5L:14.5D. The body mass changes, food intake, food intake ratio, energy budget, and energy budget of unit body mass in the winter birds were compared after 4 weeks. The birds were weighed (0.01 kg) twice at the start and finish of the experiment. Energy and water intake was measured for every bird. The amount of supplied and residual food was weighed daily during the experiment, and the caloric content of food intake was determined using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. The fecal discharge frequency was calculated by counting fecal deposits 5 times per day, after which the deposit was removed to ensure accurate measurement. The results showed that the body mass of G. japonensis and G. vipio were reduced 9.35%(P<0.05) and 3.02% (P>0.05), respectively, and food intake ratio (crucian carp/corn) were 12.70/1 and 0.93/1, respectively. No significant difference was observed in body temperature. Energy intake and the cooling energy of water discharged measured values of G. japonensis were significantly higher than G. vipio (P<0.001). However, although the energy intake of unit body mass (/kg) between the two birds was not significantly different, the cooling energy of water discharged of unit body mass in G. japonensis was significantly higher than G. vipio. In addition, due to the stress of low air temperature and short photoperiod, the food intake time of crucian carp and corn was limited only within 5.5 h and 9.5 h, respectively. These findings suggested that the energy intake demand of G. japonensis was the same as the G. vipio in winter, however, the energy budget benefits were different because of their different feeding preference. In conclusion, from the perspective of food availability and energy budget, the fitness of G. vipio should be higher than G. japonensis in winter in Zhalong National Nature Reserve.
2017,36(1): 87-93 收稿日期:2016-10-02
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160271
分类号:Q959.7
基金项目:黑龙江省自然科学基金项目(C2016059);国家自然科学基金项目(31470016;31070345)
作者简介:杨志宏(1974-),男,博士,副教授,主要从事鸟类生理生态学和能量学研究
*通讯作者:杨志宏,E-mail:yzh0452@163.com
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