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雌性圈养大熊猫在卧龙和雅安繁殖习性的比较研究
Comparison of Reproductive Characteristics of Captive Female Ailuropoda melanoleuca in Ya'an and Wolong
黄炎, 刘洋, 吴代福, 张明春, 黄金燕, 周世强, 张贵权, 李德生, 张和民*
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DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160165
作者单位:中国保护大熊猫研究中心, 四川卧龙 623006
中文关键字:大熊猫;发情;海拔;气温
英文关键字:Ailuropoda melanoleuca; oestrus; elevation; temperature
中文摘要:本研究通过对比研究卧龙和雅安圈养大熊猫Ailuropoda melanolenca来探讨环境变化对雌性圈养大熊猫繁殖习性的影响。中国保护大熊猫研究中心卧龙核桃坪基地(卧龙基地)和雅安碧峰峡基地(雅安基地)的海拔分别是1 848 m±20 m和1 080 m±42 m,2个基地的海拔相差近800 m。通过对比研究10年间13只雌性圈养大熊猫在不同基地(各5年)的繁殖习性,发现其从卧龙基地到雅安基地以后,每胎产仔数的差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01),在卧龙基地的平均每胎产仔数为1.66±0.27,雅安基地为1.28±0.24;在卧龙基地的平均发情时间为90.05 d,雅安基地为75.54 d,在雅安基地的平均发情时间比卧龙基地早14.5 d(P<0.05);雌激素峰值在卧龙基地平均为136.1 ng/mg Cr,雅安基地为129.7 ng/mg Cr(P=0.47);在卧龙基地的平均孕娠期为120.3 d,雅安基地为115.3 d,差异无统计学意义(P=0.38)。本研究结果显示,在圈养大熊猫的管理中需要重视环境因子的影响,将来也需要进一步加强光周期和温度对大熊猫发情影响的研究。
英文摘要:This study analyzed the relationship between captive female giant pandas' reproduction characteristics and environmental factors. China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda has 2 bases, Wolong Hetaoping Base and Ya'an Bifengxia Base, which are located at 1 848 m±20 m and 1 080 m±42 m in elevation, respectively. In the past10 years, 13 captive female giant pandas had been raised in both bases (5 years in each base). Comparing their reproductive characteristics in this period, statistics showed that there was a significant difference to the litter size and timing of estrus between 2 bases, but had no difference to peak estrogen and pregnancy. In detail, the average litter size was 1.66±0.27 in Wolong Hetaoping Base, and this was extreme significantly different from that of Ya'an Bifengxia Base (1.28±0.24,P<0.01). Additionally, beginning on every January 1, the captive female giant pandas in Ya'an Bifengxia Base experienced a 75.54 days' rutting period on average, and this was about 15 days earlier than that in Wolong Hetaoping Base (P<0.05). Furthermore, the peak estrogen value of the giant panda in Wolong Hetaoping Base was 136.1 ng/mg Cr and 129.7 ng/mg Cr in Ya'an Bifengxia Base (P=0.47). Besides, the pregnancy period of captive female giant pandas in Wolong Hetaoping Base was 120.3 days on average, and about 115.3 days in Ya'an Bifengxia Base (P=0.38). These findings indicated that environmental factors were important and should be taken into consideration in captive giant panda management. Investigations on the relationship between giant pandas' oestrus and photoperiod illumination and temperature could be carried out in further studies, as well as analysis of the mechanisms driving female giant pandas' oestrus at the molecular level.
2017,36(1): 14-18 收稿日期:2016-06-20
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160165
分类号:Q959.8
基金项目:香港海洋公园保育基金项目(GP02_1415);国家林业局国际合作项目(SD0628,KB1401)
作者简介:黄炎(1964-),男,教授,研究方向:繁殖生理和保护生物学,E-mail:pandayard@hotmail.com
*通讯作者:张和民,E-mail:wolong_zhm@126.com
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