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滇西山地核桃林与天然林的春季鸟类群落比较研究
Spring Bird Community Comparisons of Montane Walnut Plantation and Natural Forests in Western Yunnan, China
张淑霞1, 任国鹏1, 肖文1, 李施文2, 徐会明2, 赵建刚3, 王永兴3
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作者单位:1. 大理大学东喜玛拉雅资源与环境研究院, 云南大理 671003;
2. 云南云龙天池国家级自然保护区管护局, 云南大理 672700;
3. 永平县林业局, 云南大理 672600
中文关键字:结构复杂度;林下植被;中国西南
英文关键字:structural complexity; understory vegetation; southwest China
中文摘要:人工种植林正在发展中国家快速发展,但目前这些人造景观对生物多样性保护的价值却未被深入理解。2015年春季,对云南省大理白族自治州云龙县和永平县内的核桃种植林,及其邻近保护区内的天然林进行了鸟类和植被结构调查。所有60个样点鸟类调查共记录到鸟类88种,仅在天然林中出现的物种有54种,仅在核桃林中出现的有14种,2种林型中共有的物种有20种。2个核桃林研究地点中的鸟类物种丰富度和多度均低于相应天然林的;群落相似性系数比较显示核桃林与天然林的鸟类群落组成也明显不同,永平县的核桃林和天然林之间鸟类群落组成差异更大。与天然林相比,利用核桃林的物种多为普通物种、森林边缘和开阔地活动物种,3种国家Ⅱ级重点保护物种和食果鸟、啄木鸟类、多数画眉科等特殊鸟类仅在天然林中出现。典型对应分析表明鸟类群落分布与天然乔木盖度、藤本植物盖度密切相关,天然乔木及其附属的林下植被对鸟类栖息地的保护具有重要作用。研究认为即使在非落叶季节邻近天然林的核桃林中,其中的鸟类多样性仍远低于天然林。与天然林相比,核桃林这一人工林的生物多样性保护价值有限。本研究从保护鸟类的角度出发,为云南省核桃林的发展和管理提出了保护建议。
英文摘要:Commercial plantation is rapidly expanding in the developing countries, and yet we currently have a poor understanding of the value of these human-dominated forest landscapes for biodiversity conservation. Bird communities and vegetation structure in walnut plantation and nearby natural forests were surveyed respectively in Yunlong county and Yongping county of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in 2015 spring. A total 88 species were recorded in all 60 points by point count method, with 54 species recorded in the natural forests, 14 species in walnut plantation, and 20 species shared in both forests. Bird species richness and abundance in walnut plantation were less than that of corresponding natural forests for both sites. Bird community composition in walnut forests and corresponding natural forests were totally different, with more difference occurring in Yongping county. Compared with the bird species in natural forests, common birds and non-forest interior species had a higher probability of occurrence in walnut forests. Three species of national class Ⅱ protected birds and special birds, such as frugivores, woodpeckers and most babblers, were only recorded in natural forests. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that bird species were significantly associated with native tree canopy cover and understory liana cover. Native trees and affiliated understory was important to bird habitat conservation. Our study showed that the bird richness and abundance in walnut plantation was lower than that in natural forest, even when the plantation is closely adjacent to the natural forest, which indicated limited values in biodiversity conservation in walnut plantation. We provided management strategies to improve bird conservation within walnut plantations in Yunnan province.
2016,35(6): 918-927 收稿日期:2016-08-17
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160222
分类号:Q959.7;Q958.15
基金项目:北京山水自然保护中心麦克阿瑟澜沧江保护基金项目(201501006);中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心项目;云南省高校洱海流域保护与可持续发展研究重点实验室项目
作者简介:张淑霞(1977-),女,博士,高级工程师,主要从事鸟类学研究,E-mail:zhangsx@eastern-himalaya.cn
*通讯作者:
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