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青藏高原高寒草甸生态系统高原鼠兔种群调查及其防控阈值研究
Plateau Pika Population Survey and its Control Threshold in the Alpine Meadow Ecosystems of the Tibetan Plateau
孙飞达1, 苟文龙2, 李飞1, 朱灿1, 路慧1, 陈文业3
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作者单位:1. 四川农业大学动物科技学院, 成都 611130;
2. 四川省草原科学研究院, 成都 611731;
3. 甘肃省林业科学研究院, 兰州 730020
中文关键字:防控阈值;植物生物量;鼠害防控;草原管理
英文关键字:control threshold; plant biomass; rodents control; rangeland management
中文摘要:认识高原鼠兔Ochotona curzoniae在草地退化中的角色和地位,对于加强高寒草甸生态系统高原鼠兔种群管理具有重要的意义。以高原鼠兔有效洞穴密度为调查对象,根据所调查的12个样地遴选出4个不同鼠洞等级的研究样地去评估鼠兔数量和植物生物量变化之间的关系。主要结论如下:高原鼠兔活动并非引起草地退化的原因,而是作为草地退化的标志性信号,然而高频度的鼠兔活动会加剧草地逆向演替的进程。因此,一些综合措施诸如减少牲畜数量、动态的轮牧、草地恢复管理技术、社区参与式管理等可以有效提高草地生产力和防止鼠害爆发。对各类型退化草地进行综合治理时,应加强对害鼠种群动态的监测,当种群密度超过经济阈值或达到高密度种群时,应急性、常规性灭鼠工作才可以实施,为重度型退化草地重建、植被恢复和土壤发育提供可能性。
英文摘要:Understanding the roles of plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) on grassland degradation is essential for improving the management of pika populations in alpine meadow ecosystem. In this study, 4 degrees of active burrows densities from 12 survey sites were defined to evaluate the interactions between pika populations and biomass changes. We conclude that pika activities may not be the cause but act as a symptom of grassland degradation, and the high-frequency of pika activities can promote to the process of reverse succession. Therefore, some comprehensive measures such as reduction of livestock numbers, variable grazing system, restorative management techniques, and community participation in co-management of the meadows are likely to effectively improve grassland productivity and prevent the outbreaks of pikas. Furthermore, pika population fluctuations should be monitored. When the population of pikas exceeds the economic threshold or reaches high-density, integrated management strategies should be implemented to prevent damage.
2016,35(6): 825-832 收稿日期:2016-04-05
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160073
分类号:Q959.837;Q958.1
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31100338);四川省留学回国人员项目(03109148);四川农业大学“双支计划”项目
作者简介:孙飞达(1978-),男,副教授,从事高寒草地生态学研究(小型食草动物为主),E-mail:sunfd08@163.com
*通讯作者:
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