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鄱阳湖越冬鹤鹬的日间行为节律
Diurnal Behavior Rhythm of Wintering Tringa erythropus in Poyang Lake
沈啸远1, 刘洁1, 金斌松1,2, 秦海明1,2, 刘观华3, 王文娟1,2,4*
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作者单位:1. 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所和鄱阳湖环境与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330031;
2. 江西鄱阳湖湿地生态系统国家定位观测研究站, 南昌 330038;
3. 江西鄱阳湖国家级自然保护区管理局, 南昌 330038;
4. 复旦大学生物多样性科学研究所, 上海 200433
中文关键字:鄱阳湖;鹤鹬;日间节律;时间分配;越冬期
英文关键字:Poyang Lake; Tringa erythropus; diurnal rhythm; time budget; wintering period
中文摘要:目前有关鸟类越冬行为节律的研究主要集中在大型水鸟。与大型鸟类相比,小型鸟类在体温调节中消耗的能量更多,因此可能呈现不同的日间行为节律。本研究选择鄱阳湖数量较大的小型水鸟——鹤鹬Tringa erythropus为研究对象,于2014年11月-2015年3月在鄱阳湖的子湖——常湖池对越冬期鹤鹬各种行为的时间分配进行了调查研究。结果表明觅食(61.4%)和休息(32.1%)是鹤鹬越冬期最主要的行为,2种行为的比例呈显著负相关。与一些植食性水鸟相比,肉食性鹤鹬的觅食行为比例偏低。而与一些大型食肉性水鸟相比,鹤鹬的觅食行为比例偏高,这可能与其较小的体型在体温调节中消耗的能量较多有关。鹤鹬的警戒行为比例较低(0.8%),越冬期集大群的习性可能是导致其偏低的主要原因。越冬期不同月份间各行为比较中,1月出现了觅食行为比例的高峰和休息行为比例的低谷,这可能与1月平均气温为全年最低有关。觅食行为比例在全天呈缓慢上升趋势,而休息行为比例呈下降趋势。虽然觅食和休息行为的时间分配在全天有一定变化,但是鹤鹬的日间行为节律性并不强。鹤鹬的觅食行为主要发生在跗跖位(0~5.5 cm),而休息行为主要发生在跗跖上位(5.5~8.6 cm),安全性和食物的可利用性可能是影响鹤鹬生境选择的主要因素。
英文摘要:Investigation of behavior rhythm of wintering birds is useful in understanding the strategy of birds living through hard winter environment by adjusting behavior and time budget. Until now, most relevant researches were focused on large water birds. Compared with large birds, small birds spend more energy during thermoregulation, and this may result in different diurnal rhythms. In this study, spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus), a common small water bird in Poyang Lake was selected to investigated its time budget at a sub-lake of Poyang Lake (Changhuchi) from November 2014 to March 2015. The results indicated that foraging was the most frequent diurnal behavior, accounting for 61.4% of daylight period, followed by resting (32.1%). There was a significant negative correlation between foraging and resting, and the trade-off between them was critical for the survival of T.erythropus during harsh winters. The foraging proportion of carnivorous T.erythropus was lower than that of some herbivorous water birds, but higher than some large carnivorous water birds. And this may be related to the smaller body size of T.erythropus, which made them suffer more energy loss during thermoregulation. In order to fulfill daily energy requirement, they had to allocate more time on foraging. Alerting behavior only accounted for 0.8% of daylight period, and this low proportion may be related to the aggregation characteristic of T.erythropus. During the wintering period, the time budge of feeding reached the peak while the resting dropped to the lowest level in January, which was the coldest month of year. The proportion of feeding showed a growing trend during the daytime, while the resting behavior showed an opposite trend. The time budgets of feeding and resting showed a certain degree of variation but not significant. Feeding mostly occurred in the water level lower than the hock of T.erythropus (0~5.5 cm), while resting was most active in water level higher than the hock (5.5~8.6 cm). Security and food availability may be the main factors influencing the habitat selection of T.erythropus.
2016,35(6): 810-817 收稿日期:2016-04-24
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20160097
分类号:Q959.7
基金项目:江西省自然科学基金项目(20161BAB214158);南昌大学“鄱阳湖环境与资源利用”教育部重点实验室开放基金项目;赣鄱英才555工程项目
作者简介:沈啸远(1990-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:鸟类生态学,E-mail:1018522702@qq.com
*通讯作者:王文娟,E-mail:wangwj870120@163.com
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