Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Behaviors of Long-term Individually-caged Cynomolgus Macaques
To evaluate the influences of environmental enrichment on the behaviors of long-term individually-caged cynomolgus macaques. Method
A total of 30 cynomolgus macaques were randomly divided into two groups: control group (group A, n
=15) and environmental enrichment group (group B, n
=15). Cynomolgus macaques of each group were kept in the single cage (0.7 m×0.8 m×0.9 m) respectively. The cage of group A facing the wall was provided only with the feed trough and drinking fountains. In contrast, group B was provided not only with the feed trough and drinking devices, but also with swings, mirrors, stainless steel ball, and the small stones for hiding food. Natural sound of ocean, thunder, rain, and the singing of birds etc. were played by CD at the same time intervals. During the study period of 3 months, the abnormal behaviors of cynomolgus macaques were daily observed and recorded by the fixed observers at the same time. Result
With the extension of experimental time, all captive cynomolgus macaques of the two groups showed abnormal behaviors in varying degrees, and that of group A was significantly higher than group B (P
The abnormal behaviors of long-term individually-caged cynomolgus macaques were effectively reduced by environmental enrichment.
2016,(35): 243-248 收稿日期：2015-08-08
基金项目：中国博士后科学基金项目(2015M572199); 湖北省自然科学基金项目(2015CFB164, 2015CFA075); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2042015kf0017); 国家自然科学基金项目(81301428)
作者简介：高建峰, 讲师, 研究方向:实验动物与比较医学, E-mail:email@example.com
孙晓梅, 李春花, 叶尤松, 等. 2008. 促进人工饲养实验猕猴心理康乐[J]. 中国比较医学杂志, 18(2): 79-82.
俞发荣, 常青云, 连秀珍, 等. 2014. 生活环境条件对中国树鼩血激素水平和心理行为的影响[J]. 中国实验动物学报, 22(3): 62-66.
Baker KC, Bloomsmith M, Neu K, et al. 2009. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques[J]. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 12(3): 236-252.
Bellanca RU, Crockett CM. 2002. Factors predicting increased incidence of abnormal behavior in male pigtailed macaques[J]. American Journal of Primatology, 58(2): 57-69.
Bloomsmith M, Lambeth S. 2000. Videotapes as enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)[J]. Zoo Biology, 19(6): 541-551.
Boccia ML, Hijazi AS. 1998. A foraging task reduces agonistic and stereotypic behavior in pigtail macaques social groups[J]. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 37(3): 1-5.
Brent L, Eichberg JW. 1991. Primate puzzleboard: a simple environmental enrichment device for captive chimpanzees[J]. Zoo Biology, 10(4): 353-360.
Brüne M, Brüne-Cohrs U, McGrew W, et al. 2006. Psychopathology in great apes: concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders[J]. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(8): 1246-1259.
Chamove AS. 1989. Environmental enrichment: a review[J]. Animal Technology, 40(3): 155-178.
Clarke MR, Mayeaux DJ. 2006. Aggressive and affiliative behavior in green monkeys with differing housing complexity[J]. Aggressive Behavior, 18(3): 231-239.
Dickie L. 1998. Environmental enrichment for old world primates with reference to the primate collection at Edinburgh Zoo[J]. International Zoo Yearbook, 36(1): 131-139.
Kraemer GW, Clarke AS. 1990. The behavioral neurobiology of self-injurious behavior in rhesus monkeys[J]. The Behavioral Neurobiology of Self-injurious Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys, 14 Suppl: S141-S168.
Mallapur A, Choudhury BC. 2003. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates[J]. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 6(4): 275-284.
Márquez-Arias A, Santillán-Doherty AM, Arenas-Rosas RV, et al. 2010. Environmental enrichment for captive stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides)[J]. Journal of Medical Primatology, 39(1): 32-40.
Meade TM, Hutchinson E, Krall C, et al. 2014. Use of an aquarium as a novel enrichment item for singly housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)[J]. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 53(5): 472-477.
Nieuwenhuijsen C, De Waal FBM. 1982. Effects of spatial crowding on social behavior in a chimpanzee colony[J]. Zoo Biology, 1(1): 5-28.
Olsson IA, Nevison C, Petterson-Kane E, et al. 2003. Understanding behavior: the relevance of ethological approaches in laboratory animal science[J]. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 81(3): 245-264.
Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A. 2000. The lower row monkey cage: an overlooked variable in biomedical research[J]. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 3(2): 141-149.
Ridley RM, Baker HF. 1982. Stereotypy in monkeys and humans[J]. Psychological Medicine, 12(1): 61-72.
Sackett GP, Novak MFSX, Kroeker R. 1999. Early experience effects on adaptive behavior: theory revisited[J]. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 5(1): 30-40.
Sommanustweechai A, Kasantikul T, Somsa W, et al. 2013. Environmental management procedures following fatal melioidosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)[J]. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44(2): 475-479.
Suleman B, Wango E, Sapolsky R, et al. 2004. Physiologic manifestations of stress from capture and restraint of free-ranging male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)[J]. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 35: 20-24.
Suzuki J, Ohkura S, Terao K. 2002. Baseline and stress levels of cortisol in conscious and unrestrained Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)[J]. Journal of Medical Primatology, 31(6): 340-344.
Wallace EK, Kingston-Jones M, Ford M, et al. 2013. An investigation into the use of music as potential auditory enrichment for moloch gibbons (Hylobates moloch)[J]. Zoo Biology, 32(4): 423-426.
Wojciechowski S. 2004. Introducing a fourth primate species to an established mixed-species exhibit of African monkeys[J]. Zoo Biology, 23(2): 95-108.