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不同年龄绿海龟口腔的组织形态及超微结构比较
Comparisons of the Oral Anatomy, Histology and Ultrastructure between Various Ages of Chelonia mydas
陈华灵1,2, 陆宇燕2, 叶明彬1, 古河祥1, 白树崇3, 端金霞1, 李丕鹏2*
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DOI:
作者单位:1. 广东惠东海龟国家级自然保护区管理局, 广东惠州 516359;
2. 沈阳师范大学两栖爬行动物研究所, 辽宁省生物进化与生物多样性重点实验室, 沈阳 110034;
3. 沈阳师范大学古生物学院, 沈阳 110034
中文关键字:解剖学;组织学;超微结构;稚龟;幼龟;成年龟;食性
英文关键字:anatomy; histology; ultrastructure; hatchling; juvenile; adult; feeding habits
中文摘要:对不同年龄段绿海龟Chelonia mydas的口腔进行形态学观察。口腔均由喙、内鼻孔、舌、气门及咽喉腔组成。喙覆盖角质鞘,无牙齿。稚龟喙呈V型,无角质锯齿,下喙钩状;幼龟和成年龟喙呈U型,具多排角质锯齿,口裂均相对较稚龟小。上喙内侧角化内鼻孔2个;内鼻孔梳状乳突在稚龟中缺失,但在幼龟和成年龟中可见,且随年龄增长、增密。舌呈"U"型,短小;舌正后方有游离的半圆形膜状皱褶,其下方可见1个裂隙。气门紧随裂隙内侧,游离,由2个杓状软骨支撑。舌和气门下方舌骨1块;角腮骨1对,分别可伸至咽喉腔下方和头骨后方。咽喉腔约占口腔的1/2,表层分布有大量弧状皱褶,且左右各具1个咽鼓管孔。光镜下,口腔腔壁包含黏膜层、肌层和骨骼。黏膜层均由角化复层鳞状上皮和固有层构成,但仅稚龟舌后部的黏膜层可见分泌细胞分布。舌体与膜状皱褶之间有分支泡状腺;膜状皱褶下方的裂隙表面覆盖复层柱状上皮,可见管状腺分布;复层柱状上皮细胞和腺体细胞在AB-PAS染色中均呈玫红色。肌层为骨骼肌,其在舌体分布较少,而在气门区域较发达。扫描电镜下,口腔黏膜上皮由多边形的角质细胞组成,其表面有不规则的波纹分布,微绒毛和杯状细胞均缺失。绿海龟口腔的组织形态及结构与其食性及生态适应紧密相关。
英文摘要:The oral cavities of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in different ages were examined in anatomy, histology and ultrastructure. Anatomically, the oral cavity consisted of rhamphotheca, internal nares, tongue, glottis and throat-cavity. The rhamphotheca was covered with keratinized sheath, but without teeth. It was V-shaped and hooked without jagged cusp in hatchlings, but was U-shaped and had jagged cusp in juveniles and the adults. Additionally, there were two internal nares, and their comb shaped papillaes were present in the juveniles and adults instead of hatchlings. The density and length of these papillaes were increased along with age. The tongue was U-shaped, short, followed by a closely semicircular membranous fold with a deep cranny underneath. The glottis lied behind the fold and was supported by 2 arytenoid cartilages. A hyoid bone and a pair of ceratobranchial bones, located under the tongue and glottis, can stretch to the throat cavity and the rear of skull, respectively. The throat cavity accounted for about 1/2 of the oral cavity and had a wide distribution of arc folds and a eustachian tube on each side. Histologically, oral wall contained mucous, tunica muscularis and bone. The mucous was composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and lamina propria; and the secretory cells were only located in the posterior tongue epithelium of hatchlings. The branched acinous glands were located between the tongue and the membranous fold; and the cranny was dominated by stratified column epithelium and decorated by tube glands. The stratified column epithelium cells and the gland cells were red in AB-PAS stain. The tunica muscularis were skeletal muscle, and less tunica muscularis was observed in the tongue but more in the glottis area. Ultrastructurally, oral epithelium consisted of irregular keratinocytes with irregular waves distributing on their surface, but microvilli and goblet cell were absent. The oral characteristics of green turtle may be closely related to its feeding habits and the successful adaption to marine environment.
2015,(): 663-670 收稿日期:2014-12-3
DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20140541
分类号:Q959.6;Q954
作者简介:陈华灵(1979-),硕士研究生,助理工程师,研究方向:细胞生物学,E-mail:hualin_chen@126.com
*通讯作者:李丕鹏,E-mail:lipipeng@hotmail.com
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