Diurnal Time Budget and Behavior Rhythm of Wintering Tundra Swan After Higher Water Level in Poyang Lake
作者单位：(1. 江西师范大学生命科学学院，南昌330022；2. 国际鹤类基金会，威斯康辛州，美国，53916)
英文关键字：tundra swan; Poyang Lake; time budget; activity rhythm
2011年1~2月，采用焦点动物观察法对鄱阳湖康山湖候鸟自然保护区内越冬小天鹅种群进行了时间分配和日间活动节律的研究。通常认为小天鹅是典型的游禽，冬季大部分时间都在水中游动。我们的研究结果表明，93.2%的个体在湿地洲滩生境内活动。2010年鄱阳湖持续高水位导致的水体生境中食物短缺，可能是迫使小天鹅主要在湿地洲滩生境活动的主要原因。取食是小天鹅越冬期间最主要的行为，占52.6%，其次为警戒18.2%、运动10.6%、休息10.0%和理羽8.6%。取食、警戒、运动、休息和理羽行为发生的持续时间存在显著差异，休息行为持续最长，平均为48.4 s±2.9 s，警戒行为的持续时间最短，平均持续时间为9.5 s±0.6 s。小天鹅在水域生境和湿地洲滩生境中时间分配存在显著差异，在水域生境以休息为主，在湿地洲滩生境以取食为主。除理羽行为与休息行为发生节律存在显著的负相关，其他行为没有显著的相关性。
During January and February of 2011, the wintering behaviors and daily cycle of tundra swan were observed by focus sampling in the Kangshanhu Nature Reserve in Poyang Lake. It is suggested that the tundra swan is a typically swimming bird and the majority of its wintering daily time was spent in the water. However, our results showed that, in the winter of 2010, the tundra swan mainly (93.2%) inhabited in lake meadow. Long-time food shortage caused by higher water level in Poyang Lake might be the key factor which forced the tundra swan to spend most of daily time on the land. Tundra swan spent 52.6% of their time on feeding. Other behaviors such vigilance, locomotion, resting and grooming were 18.2%, 10.6%, 10.0% and 8.6%, respectively. And the duration of these behaviors were significant different. The duration of resting behavior was the longest, averagely 48.4 s±2.9 s, while the duration of vigilance was the shortest, averagely 9.5 s±0.6 s. Significant difference was observed between the time allocation pattern of tundra swan in water habitat and meadow habitat. In the water habitat, tundra swan spent most time on resting; however, in meadow habitat, tundra swan spent most time on feeding. The behavior rhythm of grooming was negatively correlated with resting behavior. No significant correlations were observed among other behaviors.