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上海郊野公园无尾两栖类湿地微生境利用特征研究
Microhabitat Utilization of Anuran Species in Shanghai Country Parks
黄凯1,慕志强1,岳衢1,于峰1,袁晓2,薄顺奇2,王正寰1,3
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作者单位:1. 华东师范大学生命科学学院,上海200062 2. 上海市野生动植物保护管理站,上海200023 3. 华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室,上海200241
中文关键字:郊野公园;无尾两栖类;微生境;冗余分析;物种保护
英文关键字:country parks; anurans; microhabitat; RDA; species conservation
中文摘要: 两栖类是衡量城市生态系统环境质量的指标类群。郊野公园是上海城市生态系统中重要的两栖类栖息地。因此本文研究了5种无尾两栖类在郊野公园中的微生境利用特征。本研究于2015年5—9月,采用样线法对上海市6个郊野公园的无尾两栖类的种群数量进行调查,采用样方法采集15种微生境变量数据。使用主成分分析和冗余分析,了解各无尾两栖类对于微生境因子的利用特征,并用x2适合度检验了解两栖类的不同种间分布重叠度。结果表明,5种两栖类依据其优势度由高到低依次为泽陆蛙Fejervarya multistriata、金线侧褶蛙Pelophylax plancyi、中华蟾蜍Bufo gargarizans、饰纹姬蛙Microhyla fissipes、黑斑侧褶蛙Pelophylax nigromaculata。适宜的水质和结构合理的水生植被是这些两栖类得以生存、繁衍的基础。而坡度较小的自然坡岸又是两栖类自由往返水陆之间的重要保障。陆生植被的重要性次于水生植被,仅对金线侧褶蛙和黑斑侧褶蛙的分布有显著正相关作用。不同两栖类物种对于水体大小的适应能力不尽相同。郊野公园的水体通常比较开阔,不利于饰纹姬蛙的生存。本研究建议应根据不同两栖类的栖息地利用特征,建设具有不同物种特异性的栖息地景观。如此,在保护好两栖类的同时,能够进一步提升公共绿地的综合生态服务效能。
英文摘要:Amphibian is an important indicator to measure biodiversity and ecological quality of an urban ecosystem. Country parks are ones of the most important amphibian habitats in the urban ecosystem of Shanghai. Thus microhabitat utilization of the five anuran species was studied in six country parks. Line transect surveys of the abundance of each anuran species were conducted between May to September, 2015. Data of 15 microhabitat variables were collected in four evenly set 6 m × 3 m rectangular quadrats centered on the interface between water and land. The principal component analysis and redundancy analysis were used to investigate the microhabitat utilization of each anuran species, and the x2 good of fitness test was used to analyze overlaps of detecting different anuran species among line transects. The result showed that the dominance of the five anuran species from high to low are Fejervarya multistriata, Pelophylax plancyi, Bufo gargarizans, Microhyla fissipes, P.nigromaculata. We found that well managed water bodies with proper aquatic vegetation communities were pivotal to the survival and reproduction of all the five anuran species. Meanwhile, water body edges with gentle slope were important for anuran species moving between land and water. Compared with aquatic vegetation, the importance of land vegetation is secondary, though positively correlated with the distribution of P. nigromaculata and P. plancyi. Openness of water bodies had different influence on the distribution of the anuran species. Microhyla fissipes, a species typically distributed in small, clean, shallow waters, was the species with the smallest distribution in this study which is coincident with the fact that most water bodies in the six country parks are too open to them. We suggest that microhabitat of each anuran species should be thoroughly studied and integrated into the design of city parks to enhance their functions as suitable habitats for anuran species in heavily urbanized ecosystem.
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